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AP Resources - Lymphatic System Outline

Lymphatic and immune system are kind of one in the same, linked together


Immunity- key job of lymphatic system


3 jobs of lymphatic


Microorganisms—use body for shelter and nutrition causing sickness and death


Immune system---2 types of immunity






Pieces that make up lymphatic


Jobs of lymphatic system


Fluid balance


Lymph vessel


Fat absorption




Lymph nodes---3 superficial aggregations


-Swell up when you get sick-




· nodes are placed along the pathway of lymph


All lymph will have to pass thru one of these on way back to blood





---Inside lymph node—specialized type of connective tissue---protein fibers reticular fibers


Lymph nodule—aggregations of lymphocyte (produce antibodies and other immune substances)


-----Watch lymph pass by and if there is Micro Organism they will reach out and grab it


----spaces between lymph nodules=sinuses


lymphocytes>rapid cell division, causing lymph node to swell up—carry lymph back down to one of the nodes----


On right side of head, thoracic cavity and arm---right lymphatic duct> right subclavain vein


All the rest drains into the---thoracic duct> L. subclavian vein


All fluid pushed out will be drawn back in by colloidal osmotic pressure or be returned to blood at subclavian vein


Other lymphatic tissue


Tonsils---3 types


i. pharyngeal tonsils


ii. palentine tonsils


iii. inguinal tonsils


***infectious agent get in body by eating drinking, or even breathing air***


--When Micro Organisms come in contact with lymphocytes---they undergo rapid mitotic division causing swelling in nodes---



2 types of tissue


white pulp


red pulp


-----within the walls of the spleen>smooth muscle (holds about 1.5 cup of blood)

When body goes into shock, spleen will contract forcing out the extra blood in an attempt to keep the B/P from dropping


3. Thymus gland


****3 major classes of Lymphocytes


All are formed in the Red Bone Marrow, and NK and B-cells mature here




2 types


Innate Immunity


Activation products of compliment cascade:




cellular lysis








Antiviral protein - prevents infection of other cells


Cells in innate immunity




mast cells







Inflammation can be local or systemic


2. Adaptive immunity


Key players in process of Adaptive Immunity---


a. Primary function---activate B-cells and other T-cells

b. ---reason immune system does go after own antigens



Lymphocytes exist as discreet clones—receptors on surface of lymphocyte is very specific for particular type of antigen


--population of individual lymphocytes capable of responding to every known antigen—


---a virus has multiple different antigen sites (on an individual MICROORGANSIM)


---Receptors on receptors on surface of lymphocyte---operate in lock and key fashion with antigens---


All lymphocytes that have identical receptors are----CLONE


· we have ( very small in #) clone of lymphocytes capable of responding to every known antigen


---also have capability of responding to your own host antigens except during prenatal stages( fetal)


2 basic types of adaptive immunity---


humeral( antibody mediated




cell mediated immunity


3-part process for B-cells (humeral) to start producing antibodies:








MHC---2 types---MHC1—found in all cells in the body and MHC2---only appears on antigen presented cells

activate helper T-cells


activate B-cell


5 different types of immunoglobins




----Primary response---


-----Secondary response----


Adaptive---Cytotoxic T-cells (cell mediated)

  • all other cells in body produce MHC 1—takes own protein and incorporates it on the surface of the cell
  • if it is a self protein—immune system will leave alone
  • if virus injects itself into cell---fundamentally changes protein produced y that cell===MHC 1 and foreign protein attached to outside

Processes of Cytotoxic T-cells killing


1. perforin garanzyme---2 part 1) leak perforin punching hole in cell---cytoplasm leaks 2) leaves chem. Garanzyme causing apoptosis( programmed cell death)


2. FAS/ FASL---receptor that infects cells in body ( cancer cell)


· together will do 2 things


activates colitic enzymes within cell


produces nuclease—breaks down nucleic acid in cell


Aquired adaptive Immunity


Active immunity


Passive immunity




Active artificial




Passive natural


Passive artificial