Montana Center for Inclusive Education


The goal of the Montana Center for Inclusive Education is to publish Web pages that are accessible to all people regardless of their abilities, disabilities, or limitations of their equipment and software.


The Montana Center for Inclusive Education web sites pursue this goal by applying “universal design” principles obtained through various sources of information.  Some of these sources are listed below.


What is “Web accessibility”?

“What does “Web accessibility” mean?  To me, it means that anyone using any kind of Web browsing technology must be able to visit any site and get a full and complete understanding of the information contained there, as well as have the full and complete ability to interact with the site.”—Chuck Letourneau, Starling Access Services


Quick Tips to Make Accessible Web Sites

Source:  W3C Web Accessibility Initiative
For Complete Guidelines & Checklist:


Images & animations. Use the alt attribute to describe the function of each visual.


Image maps. Use client-side MAP and text for hotspots.


Multimedia. Provide captioning and transcripts of audio, and descriptions of video.


Hypertext links. Use text that makes sense when read out of context. For example, avoid “click here.”


Page organization. Use headings, lists, and consistent structure. Use CSS for layout and style where possible.


Scripts, applets, & plug-ins. Provide alternative content in case active features are inaccessible or unsupported.


Frames.  Use NOFRAMES and meaningful titles.


Tables. Make line-by-line reading sensible.  Use header tags, table summary information and captions where appropriate. For more information on tables, see


Check your work.Validate.  Use tools, checklist, and guidelines at


Internet Resources

W3C Web Accessibility Initiative:
WAI, in coordination with organizations around the world, pursues accessibility of the Web through five primary areas of work: technology, guidelines, tools, education and outreach, and research and development.


"It's about communication." provides many links and resources about web usability.  This site breaks information into four interest areas:  business/ecommerce, information architecture, web site (graphic) design, and web site development.


Information Technology Technical Assistance and Training


The ITTATC promotes the development of accessible electronic and information technology by providing technical assistance, training and information.


Tips on Creating an Accessible Web Site

Source: AccessIT, University of Washington

  • Provide a text equivalent for every non-text element.

  • Synchronize equivalent alternatives for any multimedia presentation.

  • Design all web pages so that all messages conveyed with color is also available without color.

  • Provide client-side image maps instead of server-side image maps except where the regions cannot be defined with an available geometric shape.

  • Provide redundant text links for each active region of a server-side image map.

  • Identify row and column headers for data tables.

  • Use markup to associate data cells and header cells for data tables that have two or more logical levels of rows or columns.

  • Title frames with text that facilitates frame identification and navigation.

  • Provide a link to a plug-in or applet that complies with §1194.21(a) through (l) when a web page requires that an applet, plug-in or other application be present on the client system to interpret page content.

  • Design electronic forms to be completed on-line to allow people using assistive technology to access the information, field elements, and functionality required for completion and submission of the form, including all directions and cues.

  • Design pages to avoid causing the screen to flicker with a frequency greater than 2 Hz and lower than 55 Hz.

  • Provide a text-only page with equivalent information or functionality to make a web site comply with the provisions of this part, when compliance cannot be accomplished in any other way.  The content of the text-only page shall be updated whenever the primary page changes.

  • When pages utilize scripting languages to display content, or to create interface elements, the information provided by the script should be identified with functional text that can be read by assistive technology.

  • Alert the user and give sufficient time to indicate more time is required when a timed response is required.

  • Provide a method that permits users to skip repetitive navigation links.

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